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Priority Programme Caloric Effects in Ferroic Materials: New Concepts for Cooling (SPP 1599)
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
The Senate of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) has established a Priority Programme entitled "Caloric Effects in Ferroic Materials: New Concepts for Cooling" (SPP 1599). The programme started in 2012 is designed to run for six years. Applications are now invited for the second three-year period of this Priority Programme.

Refrigeration is one of the main sinks of electric energy in Germany and Europe and accordingly contributes to worldwide CO2 emissions. High reduction potentials are envisaged if caloric effects in solid materials are utilised. The recent discovery of e.g. giant entropy changes associated with ferroic phase transformations promises higher efficiency. Ferroic transitions enhance the entropy change of magneto-, elasto-, baro- and electro-caloric effects. Furthermore, because the refrigerant is in a solid state, the technology completely eliminates the need for high global-warming potential halofluorocarbon refrigerants. The smaller footprint for operation and the scalable mechanism open up further applications such as cooling of microsystems.

The Priority Programme 1599 addresses the following major challenges for introducing ferroic materials in practical cooling applications: understanding of the underlying mechanisms, energy efficiency, effect size, fatigue, and system integration.
Projects proposals are required to cover one of the following "ferroic-caloric" material classes or combinations thereof: ferroelastic, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials. Proposals have to focus on basic or applied aspects of solid-state cooling processes.

In detail, the research programme of the Priority Programme will focus on four key problems related to ferroic cooling:
- Which scheme is most efficient for solid state refrigeration? Giant caloric effects occur only in the vicinity of a first order transformation. For comparison experiments should focus on the direct adiabatic temperature change and cooling efficiency.
- Which length and time scales are involved? Diffusionless transformations change the structure at the atomic scale. However, in real materials, the hysteretic transformation process creates complex microstructures spanning many length scales up to the macroscale. To understand hysteresis losses, collaborations should cover several length scales, consider coupling effects (thermo-mechanic-magnetic-electric) and, in particular, use suitable in-situ methods.
- Which are the best materials and microstructures? Solid state cooling does not only require a maximised entropy change but also heat capacity and conductivity contribute to the cooling power. Hysteresis losses and fatigue, which are critical due to the high cycle numbers required for cooling demonstrators, should be addressed. Research should centre on environmentally friendly materials.
- Which are competitive device concepts? The development of novel solid state cooling demonstrators is essential for the adaption of ferroic-caloric materials. Proposals should work out the advantage of the selected setup and consider the effort for the entire refrigeration system.

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Kennedyallee 40
53175 Bonn
Dr. Sebastian Fähler
IFW Dresden
Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069 Dresden
phone +493514659-588,
E-Mail: s.faehler@ifw-dresden.de

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